British and American History: S1

This site is designed primarily for teachers and learners of English at UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour

Power Point presentations UK and US history: text only as web pages

Lesson 1: from the beginnings to the Plantagenets

Lesson 2: from the Plantagenets to the Peasant's Revolt

Lesson 3: from the "Wars of the Roses" to the "Glorious Revolution"

Lesson 2: from the Plantagenets to the Peasant's Revolt

Plantagenet (Angevin) England
Richard Coeur de Lion/the Lionheart (1189-1199). King of England, but spent most of his time on crusade (only six months in England as king).
Richard killed fighting in France 1199. John (Lackland) became king (1199-1216). Unable to resist pressure on Normandy by French king. Lost Normandy in 1204. Only Channel Islands remained ...
Richard the Lionheart
Plantagenet (Angevin) England
Magna Carta 1215
Nobles forced John to agree to sign a charter, mostly connected with their rights as nobles (tax, inheritance, ...). It is an important document because for the first time the powers of the king were limited by a legal document. Guaranteed right to a fair trial (at least for nobles and "freemen", a quarter of the population ...)
Plantagenet England
John's son Henry (III) king 1216-1272.
Expensive wars in France.
In 1258 forced to create 15 man Privy Council to oversee the king's administration, and Parliament was to meet three times a year
Battles between Henry and Simon de Montfort, who won a great battle at Lewes in 1264. Prince Edward defeated de Montfort in 1265.
Plantagenet England
Simon de Montfort did however succeed in promoting Parliament.
First reference to parliament 1236
In 1254 elected representatives to meet regularly: two knights from each shire.
Simon de Montfort strengthened parliament in 1265 by summoning two burgesses from selected boroughs as well.
Plantagenet England
Edward I 1272-1307. Expelled Jews in 1290, after a series of laws against them.
Conquered Wales 1284. Enormous cost. In 1301 made his son Prince of Wales.
Hammer of the Scots. Unsuccessful.
Edward I, like his predecessors, needed money.
Plantagenet England
In 1275 each county (shire) and town (borough) had to send two "commoners" to Parliament.
They were given no choice, though they knew what this meant: they would be expected to raise money to pay for the wars.
From that point on it became increasingly difficult to raise taxes without the approval of the Commons.
Edward, Hammer of the Scots?
Edward I wanted to be known as Hammer of the Scots and even asked for his bones to be carried with his armies after his death so he could posthumously take part in the defeat of Scotland!
When the Scottish king refused to accept the English as overlords, Edward sent an army north and defeated the Scots in 1276 (and seized the Stone of Scone)
Edward, Hammer of the Scots?
However the Scots were not completely subdued: William Wallace led the first rebellion, but was captured and hanged, drawn and quartered (± Braveheart).
Robert Bruce was then crowned king and continued the rebellion.
Edward II continued the war after his father's death in 1307 (on his way to fight the Scots)
Edward II
But Bruce beat the English at the battle of Bannock Burn in 1314.
Edward II was hugely unpopular, partly because he was ill-tempered, a heavy drinker and inclined to give riches and power to his favourite. The barons disliked the favourite, a Gascon knight called Piers Gaveston, and so abducted him and beheaded him.
Edward II - III
The barons finally rose up against Edward II but were defeated. The Queen went into exile and raised an army which returned to England and defeated Edward who was then forced to abdicate in favour of his son. He was imprisoned and ultimately murdered in a particularly violent and unpleasant way.
His son Edward III became king (1327): he began to turn towards France.
Edward III - hundred years war
Two reasons: under French and Scottish "Auld Alliance" (signed 1295) France was helping Scotland, and France was threatening wool trade with Flanders.
Edward claimed the French throne belonged to him.
The "hundred years war" (1337-1453) a series of battles and campaigns. 1346 Crécy. English archers. Siege of Calais.

Hundred Years War
Brought back plunder: "all England was filled with the spoils of the King's expedition, so that there was not a woman who did not wear some ornament, or have in her house fine linen or some goblet, part of the booty"
Black death
In 1348 the plague came to England through a port in Dorset. Spread rapidly. Quick painful death. Over a third of the population died. Pop 1300 approx 4,250,000, 2,500,000 in 1380 (Chr Hibbert 84).
Caused labour shortage. Increased land available. Peasants asked for better conditions.
Black death
Black death
Black death
The "three living and the three dead" from an illuminated manuscript actually predates the plague (1310) but shows medieval fears of death. It shows

"Three youthful kings confronted by three skeletons, whose poses and gestures mirror those of the living. The embroidered clothing, jewels and crowns of the kings contrast with the tattered rags of the sketetons; and the smooth faces and curled hair of the kings, with the hollow eyes and grimacing mouths of the dead"
Black Death/Peasant's revolt
The government (in the King's absence entrusted to his fourth son John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster) sought to prevent the rise in the cost of labour (1351, Statute of Labourers), making it illegal to charge or pay above fixed rates. This sort of legislation, along with poll taxes to pay for the wars, caused discontent. The rich higher ranks of the clergy were criticised.
Hundred Years' War
Battle of Poitiers 1356: Edward's son, the Black Prince, captured French King: ransom £500,000. Recaptured Aquitaine, Calais etc Black Prince killed 1376, Edward died 1377. Richard II became king, at the age of ten.
Peasant's Revolt
John Ball, a rebellious priest, memorably wrote:
"When Adam dalf and Eve span
Who was thanne a gentilman?"
(dalf = dug (see "delve"))
In 1381 revolt led by Wat Tyler reached London. Beheaded Archbishop of Canterbury and many others. On 15 June the young king Richard met the rebels at Smithfield.
Peasant's Revolt
Richard II and Wat Tyler stood between the rebel army and the king's men: Richard agreed to Tyler's demands. However Tyler was killed by the Lord Mayor of London and others. The rebels advanced: Richard rode toward's the rebel army and told them "I am your captain. Follow me". They disbanded, thinking he would abide by his promises. They were disappointed.

Site géré par Michael Parsons, créé le 26 octobre 2005

Dernière mise à jour mercredi 2 novembre 2005

Nombre de visiteurs depuis le 26 octobre 2005 à cette :